Saturday, 3 January 2009

Bicara Pasca-Moderen: Women, Post-Modernism and Film in Indonesia

Resensi Dalam Belenggu Sebuah Orde
PERTARUHAN Sutradara: Ani Ema Susanti, Lucky Kuswandi, Ucu Agustin, Iwan Setiawan, dan M. Ichsan
Produksi: Kalyana Shira Films, 2008
Tubuh perempuan. Di antara keperkasaan menggapai kesetaraan dan keanggunan sikap menyiasati status domestiknya; terus saja dipandang sebagai objek. Mulai terpaan mitos tradisional tentang keperawanan, pembedaan eksistensi seksual, hingga sudut pandang sebuah “rezim lelaki” yang kekal menempatkannya sebagai komoditas.
Kaum post-modernis bilang, sejarah tubuh perempuan terentang bersama sejarah orde politik di muka bumi. Cerita tentang tubuh dan ketubuhan tidak sekadar perkembangan suatu wadag genetis yang evolutif. Melainkan lebih merupakan produk sejarah dalam konsep yang lebih umum. Lengkap dengan pernak-pernik tradisi hasil kreasi aneka sistem yang maskulin.
Uraian dan tanggapan atas situasi itu termaktub dalam film dokumenter berjudul Pertaruhan. Kalyana Shira Production mengemas Pertaruhan sebagai antologi dokumenter dalam empat kisah berbeda. Semuanya menyoal tubuh perempuan.
Setelah diputar perdana di ajang Jiffest 2008, antologi besutan lima sutradara muda itu kini dapat dinikmati di jaringan bioskop komersial Blitz Megaplex. Meski bioskop ini beberapa kali menyandingkan film dokumenter dengan film-film feature dari berbagai negara dan --tentu saja-- Hollywood secara setara, tetap saja sesi itu masih terasa langka.
Kecuali dalam rangka festival, film dokumenter lazimnya diputar dalam skena-skena khusus oleh komunitas tertentu. Dari ruang presentasi pusat-pusat kebudayaan asing, kampus, hingga kamar kos. Adalah sebuah kemewahan membayangkan kisah-kisah sungguhan yang diperankan pelaku aslinya itu diputar di tempat yang nyaman dengan kursi empuk dan kudapan.
Pertaruhan dimulai dengan kisah buruh migran berjudul “Mengusahakan Cinta”, garapan sutradara Ami Ema Susanti. Berkisah tentang Mbak Wati, seorang perawan tua, pembantu rumah tangga di Hong Kong. Ia mempertaruhkan kesehatan rahimnya yang dihuni Myom dengan mempertimbangkan keberatan pacarnya, seorang duda di Jawa, yang menyakralkan keperawanan.
Juga Rianti. Ia datang ke Hong Kong dan bekerja sebagai “babu” setelah diperbabukan lantas diceraikan suaminya. Dari negeri jauh, Rianti membiayai hidup dan sekolah anak perempuannya. Di negeri jauh, ia mengekspresikan kebebasannya dari jerat kekuasaan lelaki dengan menambatkan asmaranya kepada sesama pembantu rumah tangga asal Indonesia; menjadi lesbian.
Bagian kedua, “Untuk Apa?”, garapan sutradara Iwan Setiawan dan M. Ichsan, bercerita tentang kontroversi sunat perempuan yang prakteknya dilarang Departemen Kesehatan sejak 2004. Kenyataan dalam masyarakat tradisional, penyesalan dan trauma perempuan modern berkelindan di antara lalu lintas argumentasi medis dan agamis yang semrawut.
Sedangkan kisah ketiga, “Nona Nyonya?”, besutan sutradara Lucky Kuswandi, memaparkan kejanggalan dan standar pelayanan kesehatan membingungkan yang diberikan kepada kaum perempuan berstatus “nona” ketika hendak memeriksakan kesehatan faal reproduksinya. Rekomendasi moral yang berada di balik status "nona" dan "nyonya" pada banyak kasus mampu mengesampingkan tujuan sesungguhnya jasa pelayanan medis.

Pada satu titik, seruan biblikal seorang ginekolog tua menggantikan fungsi penjelasan medis yang dibutuhkan pasiennya.

Cerita pamungkas dalam antologi dokumenter ini adalah “Ragat' e Anak”, karya sutradara Ucu Agustin. Berkisah tentang Nur dan Mira, para pekerja seks di kawasan Gunung Bolo, Tulungagung, Jawa Timur. Siang hari, mereka mencari tambahan penghasilan dengan bekerja sebagai pengumpul dan pemecah batu, demi memenuhi kebutuhan hidup dan memperjuangkan masa depan anak mereka.
Secara teknis, modus ungkap Pertaruhan tidaklah menghadirkan gagasan baru dalam ranah dokumenter. Strategi penyuntingannya biasa-biasa saja. Struktur tiap-tiap kisah yang dimulai dengan pemaparan data statistik pendukung adalah praktek yang lazim dan aman sebagai pengantar menuju narasi.
Selain itu, kehendak menghadirkan aspek drama dalam menelusuri kehidupan tokoh membuat beberapa informasi jadi terkesan dipaksakan muncul. Misalnya, dalam “Mengusahakan Cinta”, sekuen yang memuat konflik antara Rianti dan kekasih lesbiannya hadir begitu saja tanpa akar masalah yang jelas.
Kebutuhan menghadirkan konflik itu terbaca sebagai upaya sutradara untuk memaksakan drama yang senapas --dalam sekuen yang beriringan-- dengan konflik yang dihadapi Mbak Wati dan calon suaminya. Bedanya, konflik yang disebut terakhir itu terasa relevan karena dibangun dengan akar masalah yang cukup terang. Sementara itu, Rianti tiba-tiba saja menulis surat permintaan maaf kepada kekasih lesbiannya.
Aspek yang melemahkan juga tampak dalam kisah “Nona Nyonya?”. Terlalu banyak tokoh yang memberikan testimoni dalam durasi yang begitu terbatas. Puncaknya, struktur penokohan yang berupaya simetris itu jadi terganggu oleh pemuaian kisah yang memuat aktivitas pasangan lesbian yang hendak memeriksakan kesehatan reproduksinya.
Sekuen pasangan lesbian itu terasa terlalu “royal” jika hendak memunculkan --dalam nuansa sinisme-- konfigurasi identitas seksual “nonya” di antara status nona dan nyonya. Sedangkan jika tujuannya ingin mengakomodasi kebutuhan untuk mengemukakan secara berimbang kenyataan baik jasa pelayanan kesehatan terhadap perempuan nona-nyonya, tugas itu sudah dijalankan lewat keterangan seorang ginekolog perempuan.
Dengan begitu, pemunculan pasangan lesbian untuk kedua kalinya dalam Pertaruhan menyiratkan semacam ideologi politik feminisme dalam mengonstitusikan hak-hak perempuan atas tubuhnya. Jika benar demikian adanya, pernyataan politis yang dipilih Pertaruhan itu lebih dari cukup untuk meredam potensi kekayaan nilai-nilai human interest yang terkandung di dalamnya.
Lepas dari lemahnya aspek-aspek intrinsik antologi Pertaruhan, film ini --sebagaimana lazimnya karya dokumenter-- tetap layak ditonton. Khususnya oleh khalayak umum yang memiliki akses sangat terbatas --atau malah sama sekali tidak memiliki akses-- untuk menikmati film-film dokumenter.
Ironi di Gunung Bolo, dalam karya Ucu Agustin, misalnya, sarat dengan materi yang cukup komplet; seperti sebuah megamal bagi orang-orang kere yang dianggap kalah. Di sana ada perjuangan, penderitaan, komedi hitam, dan tentu saja pertaruhan hidup.
Atau dampak perseteruan argumentasi dalam “Untuk Apa?”, yang secara mengejutkan mampu membimbing penonton untuk secara subjektif berpihak kepada pemilik-pemilik tubuh yang merasa teraniaya karena tradisi sunat pada perempuan.
Tubuh-tubuh dalam Pertaruhan menarasikan dirinya tanpa harus secara teknis memakai modus ungkap naratif. Dan narasi tubuh yang terpapar dalam film ini hanyalah secuil kisah dari narasi besar --dan boleh jadi amat panjang-- tentang politisasi tubuh perempuan oleh begitu banyak variasi dalam sebuah orde. Orde laki-laki.


Sumber dan Ehsan: Bambang Sulistiyo [Film, Gatra Nomor 6 Beredar Kamis, 18 Desember 2008]
Gatra.com

Campus News: Number of University Student Dropouts in Hasanuddin University Makassar

Kamis, 01-01-09 17:57 2982008, 782 Mahasiswa UNHAS DO

Laporan: Anggi S Ugart

MAKASSAR-- Universitas Hasanuddin mendrop-out (DO) sebanyak 782 mahasiswa sepanjang tahun 2008. Sebanyak 127 mahasiswa diantaranya DO karena tidak memenuhi syarat akademik murni. Sisanya dikeluarkan karena tidak aktif kuliah.
Mahasiswa Fakultas Teknik yang paling banyak di-DO, yakni 35 orang. Kampus Merah ini juga mendepak sejumlah mahasiswa dari fakultas kedokteran, pertanian, perikanan dan kelautan. Hanya Fakultas Kedokteran Gigi dan Farmasi yang bersih dari DO.
Kepala Bagian Pendidikan Unhas, Betty Duma, di ruang kerjanya, Rabu (31/12/2008) mengatakan,para mahasiswa yang kena DO itu termasuk angkatan 2001 dan 2006. "Satuan kredit semester tidak memenuhi standar yakni 48 SKS dalam empat semester. IPK standar minimal 2,0 juga tidak terpenuhi," ungkapnya.
Kepala Sub Bagian Evaluasi Unhas, Adi Wardoyo, menambahkan, setiap tahunnya Unhas melakukan dua kali evaluasi untuk menentukan mahasiswa yang akan di-DO. Evaluasi pertama dilakukan pada angkatan 2001 (empat semester) dan evaluasi kedua pada mahasiswa angkatan 2006 (14 semester).
"Setiap tahun kami melakukan evaluasi. Meski ada yang DO (drop out, red) tapi masih ada pula yang diberi kesempatan atau percobaan hingga Januari 2009. Mahasiswa yang diberi kesempatan biasanya mendapat pertimbangan khusus dari pembantu dekan satu. Misalnya karena mahasiswa yang bersangkutan sakit, atau berprestasi tapi di saat lain ada masalah sehingga ada satu semester yang tidak aktif. Lebih ke nonteknis," beber Betty Duma. (aha)
source: Fajar online
Note: The term "Drop Out" is not clearly defined in this report. It seems to refer to those who are kicked out or expelled because of underperformance or low achievement. One of the main reasons given for the expulsion from UNHAS is not fulfilling academic requirements. Although absenteeism is given as another factor the report does not mention of financial difficulty as a major contributing factor that causes high rate of absenteeism or dropout. My academic experience with Indonesian post-graduate students in Malaysia shows that financial hardship is one major factor why Indonesian post-graduate students in Malaysia tend to defer registration and delay submission of their dissertations. By Malaysian standard the number of students who were kicked out or "dropped out" from UNHAS for 2008 seems to be extremely high.

Thursday, 1 January 2009

DAP's kind reminder to Malaysians: Maintain cordial racial relations during economic uncertainties please

Thursday January 1, 2009

PETALING JAYA: Barisan Nasional’s hopes of seeing the Pakatan Rakyat crumble will be dashed, PKR adviser Datuk Seri Anwar Ibrahim said in a joint New Year message with party president Datin Seri Dr Wan Azizah Ismail.

“They have forgotten that the formation of Pakatan is strongly based on the desire to champion the agenda of the rakyat and to bring about changes. These changes surpass racial boundaries and party politics,” he said.

He added that the people showed that change was not impossible when they rejected racial politics mixed with fear in the March 8 general election.

“We should not also be in denial. Our country is faced with global economic uncertainties and the effects are being increasingly felt by the people,” Anwar said.

He added that the economic storm must be managed with foresight and a firm and transparent leadership.

In George Town, DAP chairman Karpal Singh said that with a possible recession looming, politicians must ensure cordial relations among the various races were not affected.

He also noted the words of wisdom in the speech by Deputy Yang di-Pertuan Agong Tuanku Abdul Halim Sultan Badlishah on Monday that Muslims ought to enhance friendship and solidarity with non-Muslims who, he added, should reciprocate.

Source: thestar online

Moozookahshee des ne: Japan slowly learning to Grapple with the end-product of Globalisation and Gaijins

Thursday, Jan. 1, 2009

Debate on multiple nationalities to heat up
Diet battle lines being drawn in wake of law change and amid Kono effort to rectify dual citizenship situation

Staff writer
First in a series

The issue of nationality had never been discussed more seriously than it was in 2008.
Big decision ahead: Students of an international school in Tokyo gather for an event. Some will have to choose their nationality in some 10 years if the current Nationality Law prevails.

In a specific legal challenge in June, the Supreme Court ruled it was unconstitutional to deny Japanese citizenship to children of unwed Filipino mothers whose Japanese fathers had not acknowledged paternity before their birth. Lawmakers quickly went to work to pass a revised Nationality Law in December.

Now, Taro Kono, a Lower House member of the Liberal Democratic Party, the larger of the two-party ruling coalition, is trying to iron out another wrinkle in the law that became apparent in October when it was learned that Tokyo-born Nobel Prize winner Yoichiro Nambu had given up his Japanese nationality to obtain U.S. citizenship.

People like Nambu follow the letter of the law with respect to the Constitution's Article 14, which requires that Japanese renounce other nationalities by the age of 22 if they wish to keep Japanese citizenship. Yet, according to Kono, there are 600,000 to 700,000 Japanese 22 or older with two nationalities, if not more. In other words, fewer than 10 percent of Japanese with more than one nationality make that choice by the time they turn 22, Kono said.

"The current system puts honest people and those who appear in the media at a disadvantage," Kono said. In November, he submitted a proposal to an LDP panel he heads calling for the Nationality Law to be revised to allow Japanese to hold other nationalities.

The Justice Ministry acknowledges there are Japanese with other nationalities but does not press them to choose only one.
"Technically, the justice minister can order us to crack down on multiple-nationality holders. But none of the past ministers has," said Katsuyoshi Otani, who is in charge of nationality affairs at the ministry. By law, someone ordered by the minister to choose a single nationality has a month to do so before Japanese citizenship is automatically revoked.

Lawmakers are divided on Kono's proposal, which also requires that royalty, Diet members, Cabinet ministers, diplomats, certain members of the Self-Defense Forces and judges hold only Japanese nationality. Liberals stress the need for Japan to globalize, while conservatives express concern that opening up too much will diminish the country's sense of unity.

Shinkun Haku, a member of the Democratic Party of Japan, the largest opposition party, supports the proposal.

Born to a Japanese mother and a South Korean father, Haku became a naturalized Japanese citizen in January 2003 and won a seat in the Upper House the following year.
Kono's multiple citizenship plan

• The government allows Japanese nationals to be citizens of other countries.
• Japanese holding other nationalities must declare this to the local authorities where their Japanese residency is registered. Those who fail to do so may be fined or lose their Japanese citizenship.
• Japanese can obtain citizenship elsewhere, except for locations Japan does not recognize, and continue to hold Japanese nationality as long as the other countries allow multiple nationalities.
• People from countries other than North Korea or other areas lacking Japanese diplomatic recognition can obtain Japanese nationality without losing their original citizenship as long as their home countries allow multiple nationalities.
• The Imperial family, Diet members, Cabinet ministers, diplomats, certain members of the Self-Defense Forces or court judges can only hold Japanese nationality.
• Japanese who become presidents, lawmakers, Cabinet ministers, diplomats, soldiers, court judges or members of royalty of other countries will lose their Japanese nationality.
• Japanese who have a Japanese parent and hold multiple nationalities will lose their Japanese citizenship if they have not lived in Japan for 365 days or more by the time they turn 22.
• If Japan goes to war against a country, Japanese public servants cannot hold citizenship in that country.
• Japanese holding other nationalities will lose their Japanese citizenship if they apply for and join the military of other countries.
He was not allowed to have Japanese nationality at birth because the children of a foreign father and Japanese mother were barred from having Japanese nationality until the Nationality Law was revised in 1985.

Multiple-nationality holders were also then required to choose one nationality before their 22nd birthday. Before then, Japanese could be citizens of other countries as well.

Those with multiple nationalities who were 20 or older as of Jan. 1, 1985, were supposed to declare a single choice to local authorities by the end of 1986, and if they had not, it would be assumed they had chosen Japanese citizenship and abandoned any others. Those with a Japanese mother and foreign father who were under age 20 as of Jan. 1, 1985, had until the end of 1987 to settle on a nationality.

Japan is the only developed country that does not automatically grant citizenship to babies born within its territory, allow its nationals to have multiple citizenship or let foreigners vote in local-level elections, Haku said.

"I am not criticizing Japan for that, but now we have 2 million registered foreigners, and one in every 30 babies born here has at least one foreign parent. We are in the midst of globalization whether we like it or not," Haku said. "We have to discuss very seriously how we should involve foreign residents in building our society."

He is urging Japanese to change their outlook. "For example, we shouldn't think we ought to give foreigners local government voting rights out of pity. We should think Japan can become a better country by doing so," Haku said.

Other lawmakers oppose Kono's proposal, especially those troubled by the revised Article 3 of the Nationality Law. It previously only granted citizenship to a child born out of wedlock to a foreign mother and a Japanese father if the man admitted paternity before birth, but not after.
LDP lawmaker Hideki Makihara fears that granting nationality easily will bring more problems than benefits.

"I think the immigration policy of many European countries has failed as they have had some serious problems" regarding foreign residents, Makihara said. "We need to be very prudent."
Makihara also noted that citizens who gave up their non-Japanese nationality will feel cheated if Japan allows multiple nationalities, because "there is no guarantee they will regain their renounced citizenships."

The proposed revision has also stirred nationalists to action. During Diet deliberations on the bill in November and early December, anonymous bloggers posted messages expressing their concern that foreigners may approach Japanese men to falsely claim paternity in illicit bids to gain citizenship.

Although the bill cleared the Diet on Dec. 5, LDP lawmaker Takeo Hiranuma established a lawmaker group scrutinizing the Nationality Law to prevent bogus claims.

While the LDP is divided on the revision of Article 3, the party is also busy dealing with other important issues. This could mean Kono's proposal will not be deliberated seriously anytime soon, political scientist Hirotada Asakawa said.

With Prime Minister Taro Aso's approval rate declining and the global economy in serious recession, Aso wants to impress voters by swiftly passing bills on the supplementary budget for the current fiscal year that would finance a ¥2 trillion cash handout program during the Diet session starting later this month, Asakawa said. The LDP then has to pass the budget for the next fiscal year during the same Diet session.

"These issues are enough of a handful. The LDP will also have to prepare for an anticipated Lower House election, which could happen who knows when," he said. "In such a crucial time, the LDP will not want to discuss Kono's proposal, which is likely to divide the LDP."
Nevertheless, many lawmakers seem to agree that the current situation, in which many Japanese unlawfully hold multiple nationalities, needs to be fixed.

The case of former Peruvian President Alberto Fujimori, born to a Japanese couple who emigrated to Peru early last century, is an extreme but forceful example. Kokumin Shinto (People's New Party) asked Fujimori, who holds Peruvian and Japanese nationalities, in June 2007 to run for the Upper House election when he was detained in Chile. He ran in and lost. After Fujimori fled to Japan in exile, Tokyo declared he has Japanese citizenship, because of his parental roots.

What if he had won a Diet seat?

"Japan escaped by a hair's breadth as Fujimori lost the election," Kono said. "I have no idea what lawmakers would have done (if Fujimori had won). Legislation was a step behind the reality."
To be sure, the proposal has a long way to go to be legalized. A typical process would be that the panel deliberates, finalizes and submits it to LDP executives, who would then decide whether to create a bill to be submitted to the Diet. However, it is unknown if Kono can sway his party.
"I have created a draft for everybody, not just lawmakers, to discuss the nationality issue," Kono said. "I want to tell Japanese nationals, 'Let's discuss it.'

Source and courtesy of
The Japan Times
(C) All rights reserved
Article 1 of 9 in National news

Wednesday, 31 December 2008

Swadaya Foundation Pontianak: Reflections on the Post-1999 Sambas Ethnic Conflict

The Swadaya Dian Khatulistiwa Foundation is going to organize the 2008 end-of-the year reflection on the 1999 Sambas ethnic conflict. Entitled, “Status Quo; Proses Rekonsiliasi Menjelang Sepuluh Tahun Pascakonflik Sambas 1999.”
The discussion is organized by the Centre for Research and Inter-religious Dialogue (CRID), Jalan Putri Candramidi, Pontianak. According to the co-ordinator of the CRID programme, Aris Bahariyono, the main purpose of the dialogue is to discuss the condition, problems and opposition to the process of reconciliation ten years after the 1999 Sambas ethnic conflict.
The proposed dialogue intends to discuss local norms which can substantially help to foster good relations and goodwill for an everlasting peace among the conflicting parties. It is the CRID’s aims to reach several agreements on the strategies to be implemented to help the process of reconciliation and reconstruction amongst the ethnic groups involved in the 1999 Sambas ethnic conflict.

Ehsan/Courtesy of the Pontianak Post Online Wednesday, 31 December, 08:25:00

The Regent of Perak's New Hijrian Decrees: Eradicate Corruption and Social Problems

Raja Nazrin seru perangi rasuah, gejala sosial

Ekmal Yusoff Tue Dec 30, 08 1:41:25 am MYT

IPOH, 30 Dis (Hrkh) Raja Muda Perak, Raja Dr Nazrin Shah menyeru supaya para pemimpin dan rakyat sama-sama berusaha memerangi rasuah yang semakin berleluasa dan gejala sosial yang semakin parah kini.

Baginda menyampaikan titahnya itu ketika Majlis Maal Hijrah 1430 Hijrah di Dewan Bankuet Bangunan Setiausaha Kerajaan (SUK) yang diadakan pagi semalam.

"Sempena tahun baru 1430 Hijrah ini pemimpin-pipimpin politik dan ketua-ketua masyarakat harus menyelesaikan masalah kemelut ekonomi dan kehidupan sosial rakyat bukan untuk bercakaran dalam perjuangan kemelut politik," tegas Baginda.

Raja Dr Nazrin mengulangnya lagi supaya pemimpin dan rakyat bersama-sama dapat memerangi rasuah dan gejala sosial lainnya di negeri ini khasnya.



Ehsan Harakah Daily.Net


Blogger'ss comments: The Regent of Perak's call to the leaders and people of Perak to work together to eradicate corruption and social problems underscores the serious nature of the two issues confronting contemporary Malaysian society. If left unchecked th two issues could slowly and ultimately destroy Malaysian society just as the issue of rampant corruption within UMNO as alleged by their own leaders had totally destroyed UMNO's image and credibility amongst the generally hard-working and honest Malaysian plural society.

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